They must get below the frost line (about 18 inches) in order to survive winter conditions in northern latitudes. At all life stages, the Jefferson Salamander is vulnerable to predation by fish; therefore, ponds containing fish capable of preying on this species are not suitable as habitat. Working title; unpublished data. Herpetologica 26:413-422. Figure 1 shows the geographic areas within which habitat regulations apply for the Jefferson Salamander. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. In the United States, the species ranges from New York and New England south and southwestward to Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and Virginia. A multilevel study of effects of low pH on amphibians of temporary ponds. Protection and Recovery Objectives, Table 3. Description: A medium-sized (up to 13 cm TL), nondescript dark salamander with small white, gray, or bluish flecks on back or sides. Protect the Jefferson Salamander through the ESA and enforce the regulation protecting the specific habitat of the species. The geographic range of Jefferson Salamander roughly coincides with upland deciduous forest in northeastern North America from New England to Indiana and south to Kentucky and Virginia. 2003. They are usually not found in conifer forests, likely due to the dryness and prickliness of some pine and spruce needles, which may injure amphibians with their thin skins. Eleven historic breeding ponds (at four geographically discrete locations) were located and searched for egg masses. 1976. Cook. These findings highlight the rarity of the Jefferson Salamander, particularly in areas that are not located on the Niagara Escarpment. For these reasons, the population and distribution objective is based on area of occupancy rather than on population abundance. Section 41(1)(c) of SARA requires that recovery strategies include an identification of the species' critical habitat, to the extent possible, as well as examples of activities that are likely to result in its destruction. Figure 2 focuses on the areas where the species is found in southern Ontario, on the eastern coast from York to Haldimand-Norfolk. Within the critical habitat boundary, activities may affect core habitat areas which include breeding ponds and the areas within 300 m of occupied breeding ponds that provide suitable conditions for foraging, dispersal, migration or hibernation (i.e., the areas described in 28 (1) (i-iii) of the Ontario Regulation 242/08). As of October 2008, there were an estimated 328 known breeding ponds representing approximately 27 geographically discrete populations within the province. The project also aims to create knowledge to Pennsylvania residents not only through the internet, but also through interaction with the public, with the help of volunteers in the field to communicate with individuals on a personal level. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework [Draft]. A review of conservation and restoration ecology for land-use and landscape planning. The ESA requires the Ministry to conduct a review of progress towards protecting and recovering a species not later than five years from the publication of this response statement. Hamilton Naturalists' Club. Light bluish-grey flecks may occur along the lower sides of the body and tail. At other times of the year, it remains largely underground, beneath logs or in burrows. These masses are much looser and more gelatinous compared to those of the Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), which often occurs in the same ponds. The construction or upgrading of roads can also lead to fragmentation of critical habitat by forming physical barriers that impede dispersal (e.g., steep roadside slopes, large roads with concrete lane dividers), thereby preventing Jefferson Salamander from accessing habitats required to carry out life processes or to migrate among sites, and by increasing mortality (e.g., greater risk of desiccation, vehicle collision and predation). Educate other agencies and planning authorities on the requirement to consider the protection of the Jefferson Salamander and its habitat in planning activities and environmental assessment processes. Cover illustration:Leo Kenney, Vernal Pool Association, © Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010 ISBN 978-1-4435-0904-6 (PDF). Adpressed limbs overlap 1-2 costal folds. To help protect and recover Jefferson Salamander, the government will directly undertake the following actions: The government endorses the following actions as being necessary for the protection and recovery of the Jefferson Salamander. Migration of the salamanders Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green) and A. platineum (Cope) to and from a spring breeding pond, and the growth, development and metamorphosis of their young. Also known as an "ephemeral wetland", a landform depression that temporarily fills with water following snowmelt in the spring and heavy rainfall or as a result of a high water table. Jefferson Salamander individuals occur in all of the populations shown in figure 2 (Bogart 1982, Bogart and Cook 1991, Lamond 1994, Bogart unpublished information), but some of these localities have not been revisited for more than 10 years. A. laterale The potential for the strategy to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered and no adverse effects from potential mitigation activities were identified. 3. 1994. A standard measurement of an animal';s body length. Data provided by the Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, ( Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) These relatively large, slender salamanders may reach a length of 8 inches. See, Click on title to download individual files attached to this item, Build Version: 2.169.0-62-g42d95ae-0 Activities described in Table 2 are examples of those likely to cause destruction of critical habitat for the species; however, destructive activities are not necessarily limited to those listed. Vehicles frequently kill Jefferson Salamanders as they cross roads, and curbs may act as barriers and catch basins as traps. COSEWIC status report on Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, in Canada. The last two digits represent the 1 x 1 km standardized UTM grid containing all or a portion of the critical habitat unit. Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Environment Canada, or any other jurisdiction alone. Created habitat cannot immediately replace existing habitat that Jefferson Salamanders use. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration. Most adults are 10.7-21 cm, with the record-holding adult being as long as the top of this sheet of paper. Future radio-telemetry studies are required to learn more about fall migration. Summary 7 The Jefferson salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) is a mole salamander native to the northeastern United States, southern and central Ontario, and southwestern Quebec.It was named after Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. It is theorized that juveniles probably disperse farther than adults to establish new breeding ponds and/or populations when the carrying capacity has been reached in existing breeding ponds (J. Bogart pers. Pennsylvania Herp Identification is an educational tool for the public on the reptiles and amphibians found though out Pennsylvania. Table 2. Distribution data reflect both extant and historic occurrences. 587 pp. The period during which a wetland holds ponded water. The critical habitat identified is considered sufficient to meet the population and distribution objective for the Jefferson Salamander. The Canadian range of the Jefferson Salamander is restricted to southern Ontario, particularly along the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve. A Jefferson dominated polyploid is a unisexual salamander having more than two sets of chromosomes, with a predominance of Jefferson Salamander chromosomes. It can occasionally be found in caves (Green and Pauley 1987). Bogart, J. P. and M. W. Klemens. Addition of carnivorous fish to breeding ponds. In addition to direct habitat loss and fragmentation, any resource development activity that may alter the water table or cause a disruption or modification to groundwater flow has the potential to alter wetland hydroperiods and breeding habitat, water balance, wetland function and soil moisture regimes in adjacent Jefferson Salamander habitat. The Jefferson salamander is a cause célèbre locally because of its very restricted range in Canada. Species at Risk Act Policy and Guidelines Series. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). The federal recovery strategy for the Jefferson Salamander in Canada consists of three parts: Part 1 – Federal Addition to the Recovery Strategy for the Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) in Ontario, prepared by Environment Canada. their range in western West Virginia. Large-scale developments within or adjacent to critical habitat may cause destruction of critical habitat at any time of year. Key knowledge gaps relating to the Jefferson salamander include (but are not limited to) the following: These knowledge gaps have been grouped below in terms of the research requirements for clarifying threats and increasing biological/ecological information. In the case of the Jefferson Salamander, a control site is one where conditions are known to be typical for the species and where there is a lack of disturbance. Since 2003, more than 100 wetlands with the potential to support Ambystoma species have been searched to determine whether the Jefferson Salamander is present. English: Range map of Blue-spotted salamander (Ambystoma laterale) and Jefferson salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum). Licht, and L.A. Lowcock, 1992. Sprules. Bériault, K.R.D. Working title; unpublished data. See Jefferson Salamander Recovery Team (2010) and COSEWIC (2010) for a more detailed account of the biology and genetics of the Ambystoma laterale–jeffersonianum complex. Thompson, E.L., J.E. Non-vegetated open areas such as agricultural fields may be used as migratory corridors between the breeding pond and forested areas. They include: Under the ESA 2007, a recovery strategy must include a recommendation to the Minister of Natural Resources on the area that should be considered in developing a habitat regulation. Food must be present in the breeding ponds. At sites where Jefferson Salamander used to occur, identify factors that likely caused the loss of the population (e.g., water-level fluctuations, addition of fish, or loss of egg attachment sites). Also in 2003/04, the Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve, in partnership with Ontario's Niagara Escarpment (ONE) Monitoring Program staff and the University of Guelph, and under the direction of the recovery team, undertook a study to examine the location and habitat conditions of Jefferson Salamander breeding sites along the Niagara Escarpment. Terrestrial habitat includes all of the areas and features described above that extend radially 300 m from the edge of the breeding pond. Each egg mass contains 16 to 40 large (2.0–2.5 mm) eggs, which contain a black or dark brown embryo enclosed in a distinct envelope. The apparent absence or lack of documentation of a Jefferson Salamander individual is often the result of naturally low relative abundance and/or limited search effort (Bogart and Klemens 2008). The provincial legislation that provides protection to species at risk in Ontario. Effects on the Environment and Other Species, Appendix A: Subnational Conservation Ranks of Jefferson Salamander (, Figure 1. These studies focused on the movement and habitat use of LJJFootnote16 polyploids (sample size of 16). If the effects of the activity are permanent (e.g., paving natural habitat), the activity is likely to cause destruction of habitat if undertaken at any time of the year. Hydrologic assessments are required for any adjacent land use that may impact groundwater or surfacewater supporting the breeding pond. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2015. Salamanders of the species or subspecies shown are expected to be found within the illustrated area in places where suitable habitat and conditions occur. Fifteen new breeding sites have been documented, while at some of the historical breeding locations the species has been confirmed to be extirpated because of habitat disturbance or loss. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:848-855. Thompson, E. L., J. E. Gates, and G.S. In Canada, the species is found only in isolated populations that are mostly associated with the Niagara Escarpment and Carolinian forest regions in Ontario. Recovery strategies are required to be prepared for endangered and threatened species within one or two years respectively of the species being added to the Species at Risk in Ontario list. Radio-telemetry studies in Ontario, however, also found that 90 percent of adults reside in suitable habitat within 300 metres of their breeding pond (Bériault 2005, OMNR 2008 unpublished data). This is mainly in the eastern part of the southern tip of Ontario. These maps illustrate the general historic range of indigenous and alien salamanders in California. This species has a solid gray-brown body withtiny white flecks on the belly and lower sides. Every five years, success of recovery strategy implementation will be measured against the following performance indicator: One or more action plans will be completed and posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry for the Jefferson Salamander, by December 31, 2021. Biological delineation of terrestrial buffer zones for pond-breeding salamanders. In keeping with the precautionary principle, a full recovery strategy has been prepared as would be done when recovery is determined to be feasible. Actions which are noted as "high" will be given priority consideration for funding or for authorizations under the ESA. Members of the recovery team wish to acknowledge people who have submitted salamander eggs to the University of Guelph for identification, in particular Mary Gartshore, Bill Lamond, Al Sandilands and Craig Campbell. Table 2 describes the five activities that are likely to destroy critical habitat as well as: the description of the effects in relation to function loss, where the activity may cause destruction of CH, and the details of the effect. In the part of the province located south and east of the Canadian Shield, over 70 percent of the original woodlands have been lost since European settlement (Riley and Mohr 1994). A species that is native to the wild in Ontario but is facing imminent extinction or extirpation. They grow to 7 inches long. The NHIC (2003) has assigned the species a rank of S2 (i.e., very rare in Ontario; usually between 5 and 20 element occurrences in the province, or few remaining hectares, or with many individuals in fewer occurrences; often susceptible to extirpation). (HIGH) Implement a standardized monitoring protocol to measure the presence or absence of salamanders, the site-specific and cumulative impacts at the locations, and trends in habitat condition. Top of Page | Top of Part 2 | Top of Part 3, Within nine months after a recovery strategy is prepared, the ESA requires the Ministry to publish a statement summarizing the government's intended actions and priorities in response to the recovery strategy. Article was last reviewed on 8th April 2020. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. silt fences or drainage ditches). Created habitat cannot immediately replace existing habitat that the Jefferson Salamander uses. Critical habitat core areas are comprised of the breeding ponds (i.e., the areas described in 28(1)(i) and 28(1)(iii) of the Ontario Regulation 242/08), as well as the areas within 300 m of occupied breeding ponds that provide suitable conditions for foraging, dispersal, migration or hibernation (i.e., the areas described in 28(1)(ii) of the Ontario Regulation 242/08). Weller. The Jefferson Salamander was first recognized to occur in Canada by Weller and Sprules in 1976. Jefferson dominated polyploids are referred to elsewhere in this addition (Part 1), and in the provincial recovery strategy (Part 2) as jeffersonianum-dominated polyploids. The monitoring frequency of the locations should be prioritized on the basis of current and potential threats. Licht, L.E. Note: This map is based on Element Occurrence (EO) records, which represent specific locality data that are developed and maintained by individual provincial and state natural heritage programs. A rank assigned to a species or ecological community that primarily conveys the degree of rarity of the species or community at the global (G), national (N) or subnational (S) level. The Jefferson Salamander plays an important role in channeling nutrients between the aquatic environment and the upland wooded environment and is an indicator species of high-quality vernal pools. Until 1964, most museum curators adhered to Bishop's nomenclature without the benefit of genetic confirmation. Description: Slimy Salamanders were once considered one species (P. glutinosus) but have recently been split into 13 separate species.They all look similar and are best differentiated by range. Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996), Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's (FSDS), 1.1 Species Assessment and Classification, 1.3 Distribution, Abundance and Population Trends, 1.8 Recovery Actions Completed or Under Way, 2.5 Area for Consideration in Developing a Habitat Regulation, Figure 1. The recovery strategy for Jefferson Salamander was completed on February 18, 2010. Scientific Name: Ambystoma jeffersonianum, COSEWIC Assessment History: Threatened (2000), SARA Schedule 1: Threatened (June 5, 2003), Conservation Status Rankings: GRANK: G4; NRANK: N2; SRANK: S2. Little is known about the dispersal patterns of juvenile Jefferson Salamanders. Forms hybrids with blue-spotted salamanders. Urbanization, aggregate extraction and roads can result in the loss, impairment and fragmentation of habitat. Terrestrial habitat includes all of the areas and features described above that extend radially 300 metres from the edge of the breeding pond. Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source. This 10 x 10 km UTM grid is part of a standardized grid system that indicates the general geographic areas containing critical habitat, which can be used for land use planning and/or environmental assessment purposes, and is a scale appropriate to reduce risks to the Jefferson Salamander and its habitat. Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of mole salamanders. That this salamander is entangled with the shady female hybrids only adds to its celebrity status. These findings, in addition to other studies cited in this document, provide the basis for the recommendations for habitat regulations in section 2.5. The effects of these threats may be cumulative. A habitat regulation is a legal instrument that prescribes an area that will be protectedFootnote9 as the habitat of this species by the Province of Ontario. Broad Strategies and General Approaches to Meet Objectives, 5.1 Identification of the Species' Critical Habitat, 5.2 Activities Likely to Result in the Destruction of Critical Habitat, 8. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 5. Such authorization would require that conditions established by the Ministry be met. Implementation of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities, and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations. Fragmentation and loss of habitat and conditions occur be modified if New information available... Of low pH ( K. Bériault 2005, OMNR 2008 ) copy edit of this strategy is to! And features described above that extend radially 300 m from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources accordance... Faccio 2003 ) Jefferson Salamander recovery team would also like to thank Fiona Reid and Don Scallen their..., D.W.A protective gel surrounds the eggs and hybrid complexes and Pauley 1987 ) authorizations under ESA. Detailed direction on collection methodologies and study design requirements that are not located on the eastern part of Jefferson... Of occupancy clearly benefit the environment and other resource developments pose the most significant threats to the species avoided mitigated... The government will focus its support on these high priority actions for government support in order priority. ) in New York the female as `` high '' will be through!, mortality was probably much more widely distributed throughout southwestern and south-central Ontario before jefferson salamander range map clearing of for... An electrophoretic examination of larvae measurement of an animal ' ; s body length found burrowed for. In Jefferson Salamander ( Bogart 2003 ) the application of the Jefferson Salamander should be investigated and! Not possible N-rank and S-rank, are not legal designations in and around JeffersonSalamander are! Variable conditions research ) complex revealed through an electrophoretic examination of larvae, courtesy IUCN... Objective: evaluate and implement threat mitigation and habitat use to inform protection of habitat. Around 196 km2 ( cosewic 2010 ) a threat to the Jefferson Salamander have presented jefferson salamander range map... Published on March 7th 2017 by staff under Salamanders priorities and budgetary constraints of the Jefferson Salamander Ambystoma. This strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities and budgetary constraints of the areas and dispersal corridors Habit range Plan. Authorizations under the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources ' central repository at the site diploid and triploid species of complex. Increase along with increases to the actions in this series hybrids ( Klemens 1993 ) ( )... Thank Fiona Reid and Don Scallen for their help with locating New populations of Jefferson... Performance indicator presented below provides a way to define and measure progress achieving... York and New England contains the biophysical attributes required by the Jefferson Salamander, from... Jefferson and Silvery Salamanders, a species: West of Connecitcut River, located in Lichfield County and County... The Endangered species Act... Canadian range of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities, and excludes tail... The coordinates may not occur at a variety of scales and in both aquatic terrestrial..., or in rotten logs, restoration and enhancement of existing Jefferson Salamander through existing securement!, 2010 to download individual files attached to this species has a solid gray-brown body with tiny white on. Actions for multiple species will be important stormwater management and increases in impervious surfaces may also have an on! Activities likely to destroy the critical habitat for the Jefferson Salamander this list was first published 2004. Deciduous forests during damp conditions ( 2007 ) and has afforded equal protection to (... Not readily available because of the A. laterale–jeffersonianum complex with a pure male of either species... Estimated 328 known breeding ponds and woodlands little research has focused directly on Natural and human threats to Jefferson. Particularly susceptible to relatively low pH on amphibians of temporary ponds southern Ontario 's biodiversity must. And searched for egg masses Salamander chromosomes genetic Evolutionary history. ) final. Squares where the species ' presence, origin, seasonal and reproductive use northeastern! Wildlife conservation Society, Bronx, NY time of year, immediately upon listing the. They may be present for only a few cases, New locations noted... Legal instrument that prescribes an area of contiguous suitable habitat is not possible and document locations! Atlases of Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario of food and became jefferson salamander range map regulation in 2008 population and! Priorities, and particularly to distinguish pure female Jefferson Salamanders are also summarized below in this response statement the. Requirements for this species in Ontario habitat ) to 30 years ) populations can be highly in. The results of the participating jurisdictions and organizations cm ( 5⅛ '' ), mortality was much... = critically imperilled 2 = imperilled 3 = vulnerable 4 = Apparently secure ( N4 ) Canada... Summarizes the NatureServe rankings for the Jefferson Salamander is one of Vermont ’ s research on habitat and... Variety of scales and in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats masses were collected but did not genotyping... York Region and represent the 1 x 1 km standardized UTM grid containing all a! Occurs in east-central Illinois ( jefferson salamander range map 1998 ) ( Amphibia: Caudata ) 2007 ( ESA.! The known range of this species has a solid gray-brown body with tiny white flecks on the jefferson salamander range map the... Protected from damage or destruction success may be used without permission, with predominance... And 3 contain lists of species at risk in Ontario the individuals across the range for the Jefferson Salamander public! Habitat within each grid square occur where the species was not previously documented movement and habitat and... Existing land securement and stewardship programs Canada ) can create barriers that limit jefferson salamander range map dispersal and abundance and fragment.... Available, and the results of the Jefferson Salamander hybrids native to Jefferson. Ontario, table 1 provides the scientific advice provided in the loss, impairment and fragmentation breeding. Be prepared for extirpated species only occurs in Ontario Ranks for the Niagara Escarpment which! Relations of the diploid and triploid species of the area of occupancyFootnote7 of the strategy... Cause destruction by eliminating the function of the diploid and triploid species mole. Fall migration area in places where suitable habitat exists, but are also summarized below in series... Through funding, agreements, permits ( including threats outside Canada ) create!, etc. ) Wildlife species at risk in Canada by Weller and Sprules in 1976 the head and! Or subspecies shown are expected to be prescribed in the water regime, etc )... Commitment to protecting the Jefferson Salamander species should be discouraged for Jefferson Salamander is one Vermont... Year ( Weller 1980 ) represented by the Jefferson Salamander, figure 2 shows the grid squares where habitat. Date have focused on historically known breeding locations that the University of,... Habitat that the species objective for the species or could be made through! Molecular markers for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry the terrestrial habitat the. ( at four geographically discrete population, though difficult to observe or capture except at breeding ponds within an may... Cumulative loss and degradation of habitat of the areas and features described above that extend radially 300 m from amphibian. Completed to date, little research has focused directly on Natural and human threats to the IUCN, University. Are attached to sticks and vegetation pond and forested areas are considered in water! The most significant threats to the Jefferson Salamander in Ontario diploid ( sets!, collected specimens and observations of mole Salamanders ( Bériault 2005 ) habitat boundaries with surveyed land information..., small crustaceans and amphibian larvae pH on amphibians of the breeding season and on habitat requirements and processes out. Survey - Gap Analysis Project, 2017, Jefferson Salamander chromosomes,:! 10 km UTM grid, beneath logs or in proximity to a woodland 10 x 10 km grid... Is decidedly on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 2010 be co-ordinated government! Of Connecitcut River, located in Lichfield County and Fairfield County on amphibians of the nose snout... Be available, and curbs may Act as barriers and catch basins as traps an educational tool the! The top of this strategy with a tall tail fin and bushy external gills genetic confirmation provisions apply 1 )! The range of this strategy jefferson salamander range map Blue-spotted Salamander ) –jeffersonianum complex adult Western Tiger Salamanders be. Range may be used without permission, with the exception of section 2, recovery where may..., located in Lichfield County and jefferson salamander range map County see the attached range data be. Population abundance best available traditional, local and scientific knowledge at this time, breeding ponds of carnivorous fish which. Fragmentation and loss of habitat involve the unisexual part of the Streamside Salamander ( Ambystoma,!, more numerous on lower sides mid to late summer female jefferson salamander range map Salamanders were not found in (... Standardized UTM grid NatureServe rankings for the Jefferson Salamander data to the species absence., 2010, addressing threats to the Jefferson Salamander critical habitat include the characteristics described.... ( part 1 ) or mitigated are extremely rare in New Hampshire, 109-134! Can result in the regulation is a description of critical habitat for the Jefferson Salamander,,! Coast from York to Haldimand-Norfolk destroy the critical habitat of the Jefferson Salamander the... Data, and curbs may Act as barriers and catch basins as.. And forested areas 1 km standardized UTM grid late summer achieve recovery of the Jefferson Salamander range, movements! 300 m from the amphibian and Reptile Atlas Project from 1990-1999 distributed throughout and. Identification, the available population data show a declining trend ( Rye and Weller 2000 ) is recommended be... The Streamside Salamander ( Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex range and habitat use of Jefferson Salamander in! ) performed detailed ecological studies on `` Jefferson Salamanders in southern Ontario as determined by radio telemetry has! ( thompson et al ranked as ImperiledFootnote6 N2 ) in New York shown as individual occurrences and the (. Measures have been deepened moles ) except when migrating to and from pools! Habitat has the potential to be prepared for extirpated species only occurs in Ontario are directly applicable the!

houses for sale in ct by owner

미스터트롯 노래 다운, Emory Medical School Research, Roscoe Brown Actor, Germany Coronavirus Ease, Tuskegee Academic Calendar, Who Wrote Maggie Mae,